Chinese-American History (1848-1940)

1848:The discovery of gold at John Sutter's Mill in 1848 brought a large migration of Chinese to California

1852:A load of men arrive in the Sierra Nevada Mountains to search for gold

1852:The Columbia mining district of Tuolumne County held a mass meeting during which various merchants, sponsers, and shipowners were assailed for their part in bringing Chinese to California

1854:The case People vs. Hall rules that the Chinese are not allowed testimony in court.

1854:The Chinese Six Companies form to protect and regulate Chinese communities

1854:Yung Wing is the first Chinese-American to graduate from college, graduating from Yale University

1855:The California Legislature passed the Foreign Miner's Tax of four dollars a month

1858:California passes a law barring the entry of Chinese or "Mongolians"

1859:Chinese are excluded from public schools on the West Coast

1860's:Surface mines of California were exhausted and big corporations took over the mining industry. Many Chinese packed up and moved to cities

1864:The chairman of the Chinese Six Companies, a mutual aid organization, received a requrest for Chinese laborers to work on the construction of the Transcontinntal Railroad. By the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, 12,000 Chinese workers had played a part in its construction.

1866:Many Chinese men killed while dynamiting granite walls at Cape Horn

***Chinese workers only receiving $1 a day!***

1867:In protest over the adverse and inequitable working conditions, 2,000 Chinese workers in the high Sierras went on strike in June

1868:China lifted its ancient ban on emigration to foreign countries

1868:The U.S. signs the Burlingame Treaty, outlining a reciprocity in trade, consuls, and immigration

1869:A celebration of the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad excluded the Chinese, who had accomplished most of the work (1800 feet more than the Union Pacific a day)

1870:Chinese cemetary established at Fort Moore Hill

1870:The Naturalization Act excludes Chinese from citizenship, and excludes immigration of women to who are to become wives of men in the United States

1870:An anti-Chinese convention held in California unified opposing elements, made much of the state's labor movement, and called for the support of east coast labor groups. Delegates passed a resolution to halt Chinese immigration

1870:Sidewalk Ordinance-prohibited persons from walking on sidewalks while using poles to carry goods

1870:Cubic Air Ordinance-required every lodging house to have no less than 500 cubic feet of air space for each lodger(Chinese protested this law and were sent to jail)

1871:During the "chinese massacre," 18 chinese are killed

1873:Stated that every Chinese prisoner in jail should have his hair cut to one inch in length

1873:Laundry Ordinance-required that every laundry employing a horse-drawn vehicle pay money per quater

1870-1880The anti-Chinese movement uses the Chinese as scapegoats for the frustrated anger of the white working class

1877:At a San Francisco rally in support of striking east coast railroad workers, a group of afitators rallied the crowd and led them to Chinatown to riot

1877:The Workingmen's Pary of California brought Chinese discrimination to a national level

1878-1884:The Chinese used rugged techniques to transform their marshlands into fields suitable for agriculture. The boosted the value of land three times

1870-1880:Chinese farming skill and labor developed orchards, vineyards, farms, and hop yards which rescued California from disaster

Chinese-American History (1848-1940)

1848:The discovery of gold at John Sutter's Mill in 1848 brought a large migration of Chinese to California

1852:A load of men arrive in the Sierra Nevada Mountains to search for gold

1852:The Columbia mining district of Tuolumne County held a mass meeting during which various merchants, sponsers, and shipowners were assailed for their part in bringing Chinese to California

1854:The case People vs. Hall rules that the Chinese are not allowed testimony in court.

1854:The Chinese Six Companies form to protect and regulate Chinese communities

1854:Yung Wing is the first Chinese-American to graduate from college, graduating from Yale University

1855:The California Legislature passed the Foreign Miner's Tax of four dollars a month

1858:California passes a law barring the entry of Chinese or "Mongolians"

1859:Chinese are excluded from public schools on the West Coast

1860's:Surface mines of California were exhausted and big corporations took over the mining industry. Many Chinese packed up and moved to cities

1864:The chairman of the Chinese Six Companies, a mutual aid organization, received a requrest for Chinese laborers to work on the construction of the Transcontinntal Railroad. By the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, 12,000 Chinese workers had played a part in its construction.

1866:Many Chinese men killed while dynamiting granite walls at Cape Horn

***Chinese workers only receiving $1 a day!***

1867:In protest over the adverse and inequitable working conditions, 2,000 Chinese workers in the high Sierras went on strike in June

1868:China lifted its ancient ban on emigration to foreign countries

1868:The U.S. signs the Burlingame Treaty, outlining a reciprocity in trade, consuls, and immigration

1869:A celebration of the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad excluded the Chinese, who had accomplished most of the work (1800 feet more than the Union Pacific a day)

1870:Chinese cemetary established at Fort Moore Hill

1870:The Naturalization Act excludes Chinese from citizenship, and excludes immigration of women to who are to become wives of men in the United States

1870:An anti-Chinese convention held in California unified opposing elements, made much of the state's labor movement, and called for the support of east coast labor groups. Delegates passed a resolution to halt Chinese immigration

1870:Sidewalk Ordinance-prohibited persons from walking on sidewalks while using poles to carry goods

1870:Cubic Air Ordinance-required every lodging house to have no less than 500 cubic feet of air space for each lodger(Chinese protested this law and were sent to jail)

1871:During the "chinese massacre," 18 chinese are killed

1873:Stated that every Chinese prisoner in jail should have his hair cut to one inch in length

1873:Laundry Ordinance-required that every laundry employing a horse-drawn vehicle pay money per quater

1870-1880The anti-Chinese movement uses the Chinese as scapegoats for the frustrated anger of the white working class

1877:At a San Francisco rally in support of striking east coast railroad workers, a group of afitators rallied the crowd and led them to Chinatown to riot

1877:The Workingmen's Pary of California brought Chinese discrimination to a national level

1878-1884:The Chinese used rugged techniques to transform their marshlands into fields suitable for agriculture. The boosted the value of land three times

1870-1880:Chinese farming skill and labor developed orchards, vineyards, farms, and hop yards which rescued California from disaster

Japanese-American History (1869-1942)


1869:John Henry leads first group of thirty immigrants to San Francisco, setting up th Wakamatsu Tea and Silk Colony at Granger Ranch in Gold Hill.

1871:Okei is the first Japanese woman to die on American soil.

1873:Zun Zow Matzmullu is the first Japanese to graduate from college, graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy

1898:A load of mostly Japanese men arrive, mostly settling on the Western Coast. Eighty-four percent of the immigrants are men

1900:Japanese workers decide to settle permanently in Hawaii instead of returning to Japan

1904:The Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Association passes a resolution limiting access to skilled positions to "American citizens, or those eleigible for citizenship."

1905:A California Law forbids a Japanese man to marry a white woman

1906:San Francisco passes law segregating schools in Chinatown

1906:Japanese workers from Aeiea Plantation go on strike asserting that inequality is both undemocratic and un-American. After this strike, plantation owners began a massive campaign to import Filipino workers, who were easier to control.

1907:Gentlemen's Agreement limits Asian immigration in Hawaii

1909:A devastating earthquake forces Japanese into Little Toykos across Los Angelos County, where they worked on the railroad, in farming, and in small businesses

1909:Homer Lea writes The Valor of Ignorance about a future war between Japan and America, sweeping a feeling of hatred towards Japanese Americans across the United States

1913:The California Assembly passes the Alien Land Law forbidding Asians to buy or lease land for more than three years

1915:Discrimination against Japanese woman in wages becomes apparent with a Japanese woman's salary at 55 cents a day compared to the man's 78 cents.

1919:The Japanese Association publically opposes discrimination, leading to a storm of protest in Japanese-American communities

1920-1923:California state legislature passed stricter laws depriving Japanese of right to lease land or to purchase it on behalf of minors

1921:In Turlock, California, labor organizers threw out Japanese workers from fields all around the area

1922:The U.S. Supreme Court denied Tadeo Ozawa citizenship although he had been a U.S. resident for almost his entire life

1924:The Immigration Act limits Asian immigration and is known as "National Humiliation Day" by the Japanese

1930:Japanese American Citizen's League (JACL) founded by an educated Nisei group

1930-1940:JACL spawns 50 chapters, with membership at 5600

1940:Mike Masaru Masaoka writes Japanese American creed stating, "I am proud that I am an American citizen of Japanese ancestry, for my very background makes me appreciate more fully the wonderful advantages of this nation. I believe in her institutions, ideas, and traditions; I glory in her heritage; I boast of her history; I trust in her future."

1941:On December 7, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, increasing fear and hatred toward Japanese

1941:All Japanese banks and businesses in the United States are seized. Seven hundred to one thousand Japanese nationals are taken into custody

1942:The Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration is formed, headed by John H. Tolan

February 1942:Scores of Japanese fishermen and fish canners are sent totest Terminal Island

March 2:DeWitt anounced Proclamation No.1 (first in series of Order 9066) for Japanese evacuation of the West Coast and Arizona

March 3:An evacuation of all "enemy" aliens of the Pacific coastal area.(half of Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona)

March 4:De Witt starts to move evacuees without being ordered

March 6:Little Toyko of Southern California dies away

March 23:Southern Californians are sent to work at Manzanar, a Japanese internment camp.

1944: Veteran names are deleted from 16 Hood River, Oregon county's honor role

Chinese-American History (1848-1940)

1848:The discovery of gold at John Sutter's Mill in 1848 brought a large migration of Chinese to California

1852:A load of men arrive in the Sierra Nevada Mountains to search for gold

1852:The Columbia mining district of Tuolumne County held a mass meeting during which various merchants, sponsers, and shipowners were assailed for their part in bringing Chinese to California

1854:The case People vs. Hall rules that the Chinese are not allowed testimony in court.

1854:The Chinese Six Companies form to protect and regulate Chinese communities

1854:Yung Wing is the first Chinese-American to graduate from college, graduating from Yale University

1855:The California Legislature passed the Foreign Miner's Tax of four dollars a month

1858:California passes a law barring the entry of Chinese or "Mongolians"

1859:Chinese are excluded from public schools on the West Coast

1860's:Surface mines of California were exhausted and big corporations took over the mining industry. Many Chinese packed up and moved to cities

1864:The chairman of the Chinese Six Companies, a mutual aid organization, received a requrest for Chinese laborers to work on the construction of the Transcontinntal Railroad. By the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, 12,000 Chinese workers had played a part in its construction.

1866:Many Chinese men killed while dynamiting granite walls at Cape Horn

***Chinese workers only receiving $1 a day!***

1867:In protest over the adverse and inequitable working conditions, 2,000 Chinese workers in the high Sierras went on strike in June

1868:China lifted its ancient ban on emigration to foreign countries

1868:The U.S. signs the Burlingame Treaty, outlining a reciprocity in trade, consuls, and immigration

1869:A celebration of the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad excluded the Chinese, who had accomplished most of the work (1800 feet more than the Union Pacific a day)

1870:Chinese cemetary established at Fort Moore Hill

1870:The Naturalization Act excludes Chinese from citizenship, and excludes immigration of women to who are to become wives of men in the United States

1870:An anti-Chinese convention held in California unified opposing elements, made much of the state's labor movement, and called for the support of east coast labor groups. Delegates passed a resolution to halt Chinese immigration

1870:Sidewalk Ordinance-prohibited persons from walking on sidewalks while using poles to carry goods

1870:Cubic Air Ordinance-required every lodging house to have no less than 500 cubic feet of air space for each lodger(Chinese protested this law and were sent to jail)

1871:During the "chinese massacre," 18 chinese are killed

1873:Stated that every Chinese prisoner in jail should have his hair cut to one inch in length

1873:Laundry Ordinance-required that every laundry employing a horse-drawn vehicle pay money per quater

1870-1880The anti-Chinese movement uses the Chinese as scapegoats for the frustrated anger of the white working class

1877:At a San Francisco rally in support of striking east coast railroad workers, a group of afitators rallied the crowd and led them to Chinatown to riot

1877:The Workingmen's Pary of California brought Chinese discrimination to a national level

1878-1884:The Chinese used rugged techniques to transform their marshlands into fields suitable for agriculture. The boosted the value of land three times

1870-1880:Chinese farming skill and labor developed orchards, vineyards, farms, and hop yards which rescued California from disaster

Work on the railroads brought the Chinese to all parts of the United States. The Chinese started working in fishing, cigar, and canning industries.

1880:A rioting mob in Denver chased the Chinese population out of Chinatown

1881:Chinese laborers had constructed the Southern Pacific Railroad to El Paso

1882:On May 6, the Anti-Chinese movement won its first victory with the passage of teh Chinese Exclusion Act-Chinese denied right to become naturalized citizens

1885:One September 2, the death of a Chinese man by a white man sends riots through Chinatown in Rock Springs

September 28, 1885:The Anti-Chinese congress decided that the Chinese should be expelled from Western Washington

November 3, 1885:700 Chinese residents are taken out of Chinatown and forced to live in the open rain and cold

1886:The Washington Legislature passed a bill prohibiting aliens from owning land

1886:Committees swept through Chinatown and demanded that the Chinese pack up and leave-within 350 hours, the Chinese were transported to the wharf to leave for San Francisco

1886:Almost every town in Arizona has formed an anti-Chinese league

1888:LA CONG Missions founded for Chinese rights

1888:The U.S. Congress passed the Scott Act, prohibiting Chinese laboreres from returning to the U.S. even if they possessed a valid re-entry permit

1892:The Geary Act renewed for ten additional years laws restricing immigration

1905:The Chinese organized an anti-American boycott

1906:Earthquake destroys sections of San Francisco, including parts of Chinatown

1908:On April 20, Hawaii and the Chinese community organized a campaign of agitation and information, passed resolutions at a mass meeting

1910-1940:175,000 Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island

1917:Chinese-Americans fight in World War I

1922:Angel Island detainees formed an organization for purposes of self-government and mutual aid

1940:A fire in the administration building forced Chinese detainees to be moved off of Angel Island to San Francisco

1950:The detainment of Chinese was discontinued

Slowly, the Chinese started to rebuild their community within Chinatown and also in other cities. They opened their own businesses, started newspapers, and formed committees to stay strong. Most importantly, they put their values within the community (theater, meetings, associations).


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